Energy Systems --- wiki-supported survey by Prof. Dr. Adam N. Letchford

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At high level, energy systems - and related predictive and prescriptive business analytic (BA) problems - can be divided into two broad classes: Electrical Energy Systems (EES) and Energy Commodities Systems (ECS, mainly oil and natural gas). In the following two tables for both EES and ECS is presented a cross categorization about time horizon (Strategic, Tactical and Operational) versus types of optimization problems (Planning, Production, etc.). Sometimes in medium (tactical) and long term (strategic) the goals are similar (but not identical). Sometimes instead - as in the case of planning - these goals are inherently strategic and no medium (or short term) activities are considered. Also, some problems can be seen from different angles, and depending on the actual structure of the electricity or gas system or markets. For instance, in production optimization problems for electricity markets, network can be disregarded (or pretty much simplified) but if network management is considered, power plants cannot (unless a static Load Flow is of interest). Finally we observe that while many of these problems could be considered as a single bigger problem, very often in scientific literature - as well as in the industry practice - they are decoupled in a top-down or bottom-up approach depending on the focus, the goals, data availability and ultimately on the ability of the modelers. As just one example, take a large utility, its long term gas portfolio optimization is coupled with fossil fuel power plants usage maybe in an electricity market environment.

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