Renewable Energy Technologies for Developing Countries Now and to 2023
Energy flows from many sources, exists in a variety of interchangeable forms, and drives all systems. It is fundamental to the quality of our lives and today, we find ourselves totally dependent on an abundant and uninterrupted supply of energy for living and working. It is undoubtedly the key ingredient in all sectors of modern economies. Fossil fuels and nuclear technologies, as a core source of global energy production since the beginning of the 1970s, left behind a legacy of thousands of thermal, natural gas and oil fired power plants spread across the world. The carbon gas emissions and non-degradable nuclear waste produced by these plants have caused serious environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect leading to a virtual chain reaction of ozone depletion followed by global warming and climate change. Time and experience have shown that these energy production methods are non-sustainable. Instead, hope for sustainable energy production is to be found in renewable energy sources that are clean, cheap and green. Renewable energy resources and technologies have the potential to provide long-lasting solutions to the problems faced by the economic and environmental sectors of a nation. Besides the overall global benefits, renewable energy systems can provide direct benefits at national and local levels, which justify their wide use in developing countries. They can contribute to substantial savings in import bills for fossil fuels. At the local level, availability of electricity contributes to improved productivity, and indirect positive effects are also visible in the form of the creation of new employment opportunities.